Publishing Details

Publication Type: 
Report
Authored by:
Liebenberg, Frikkie; Pardey, Philip G.; Kahn, Michael
Publisher: 
University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics, International Science & Technology Practice & Policy Center (InSTePP), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Publication Date: 
January 2010
Series: 
Staff Paper P10-1; InSTePP Paper 10-01
Pages: 
69
Publication Place: 
St. Paul, MN

Abstract

The 20th Century saw substantive shifts in the structure of agriculture and agricultural production in South Africa. Farm size grew, farm numbers eventually declined, and production increasingly emphasized higher-valued commodities, notably a range of horticultural crops. The real gross value of agricultural output grew steadily (by 3.32 percent per year) from 1910-1981, but declined thereafter (by 0.21 percent per year from 1982-2008). These long-run sectoral changes provide a context to present and assess an entirely new data series on public agricultural R&D (and related regulatory and extension) spending and associated scientist trends. South African agricultural R&D has been affected by a series of major policy changes. These are also documented and discussed here, along with the associated institutional changes regarding the conduct and funding of public agricultural R&D in South Africa. We reveal a number of disturbing trends, including an effective flat lining of the long-run growth in total agricultural R&D spending that took hold in the 1970s, an erratic path of funding per scientist, and a loss of scientific personnel in recent decades. Moreover, South Africa has lost ground relative to its competitors in international commodity markets such as the United States and Australia in terms of the intensity of investment in agricultural R&D. These developments are likely to have long-term, and detrimental, consequences for the productivity performance and competiveness of South African agriculture. They deserve serious policy attention as the 21st Century unfolds, with a firm eye to the long-run given the long lags (often many decades) that typify the relationship between agricultural R&D spending and productivity growth.

Citation

Liebenberg, Frikkie; Pardey, Philip G.; Kahn, Michael (2010) "South African Agricultural Research and Development: A Century of Change," Staff Paper P10-1; InSTePP Paper 10-01, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics, International Science & Technology Practice & Policy Center (InSTePP), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

Additional Attributes

Funding Agency: Agricultural Research Council, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), South African Department of Agriculture, University of Minnesota, International Science and Technology Practice and Policy (InSTePP), University of Pretoria
Primary Contact: Frikkie Liebenberg
Geographic Coverage: South Africa, Southern Africa
Keywords: Africa, Agricultural Development, Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Research, Economic Development, History, Research, Research Investment, South Africa, Southern Africa